El periodo de adaptación

¿Qué es el periodo de adaptación?

Llamamos periodo de adaptación al tiempo que supone para el niño/a el cambio de la salida del mundo familiar, donde él/ella ocupa un lugar determinado en un espacio seguro y protegido, para entrar en un nuevo espacio, desconocido, a compartir con otros iguales y donde un adulto se ocupará de todo. Esto supone ampliar su conocimiento del mundo superando una dificultad que constituye el conflicto básico: La separación mutua niño/a familia.

Cómo se resuelva esta primera separación tendrá transcendencia en la futura vida del niño/a.

¿Cuándo termina?

Consideramos que un niño/a esté adaptado a la escuela, cuando es capaz de intercambiar experiencias, cuando ofrece y acepta una comunicación afectiva con su tutora y con sus iguales. Cuando esto ocurre se hace también evidente una mayor independencia de su educadora, utiliza con más facilidad los espacios y según las edades se integra en el grupo de niños.

¿Por qué llora mi hij@?

El llanto en un bebé es una forma de expresión que utiliza el niño para exteriorizar sus emociones, deseos, cambios de ritmos, el enfado, la prontitud, las llamadas de atención, etc.

En el periodo de adaptación, el niño/a también se expresa con el llanto:

-Lloro porque mis papás se marchan y me quedo en un lugar nuevo.

-Lloro porque aquí tengo que compartir con otros niños/as los juguetes, porque las educadoras son desconocidas para mi, porque todo me resulta extraño y necesito tiempo para hacerme a todo esto.

-Poco a poco descubriré este lugar que llegará a gustarme, jugaré con los compañeros que serán amigos, me iré con las educadoras a disfrutar de los juegos, conseguiré crecer en autonomía, experiencias y afectos nuevos porque: resolver un conflicto me aporta un nuevo aprendizaje y estrategias para mi vida adulta.

Estrategias para favorecer una buena adaptación en la escuela infantil:

La adaptación de un niño/a al centro requiere tiempo. Cada niño/a es diferente, algunos necesitan un periodo más largo para adaptarse. Será muy importante respetar sus ritmos personales sin presiones ni preocupaciones.

Es una etapa que pasa todo niño/a. Lo mejor será ayudarlo, darle la seguridad que necesita, facilitarle que conquiste y elabore voluntariamente este proceso.

Es importante tener cuidado para no transmitirle sus temores, ansiedad, etc. por este cambio en vuestras vidas. Si quiere hablar de ello con otros adultos procure que su hijo/a no esté presente.

Hable con él/ella previamente para que se sienta más seguro/a. Adelántele dónde lo lleva y lo bien que lo va a pasar, no utilice la escuela para transmitir aspectos negativos o que tengan que ver con el castigo.

Cuando deje a su hijo/a en la escuela, siempre debe despedirse y conviene que lo haga con alegría, seguridad y afecto, si llora puede decirle con tono firme y sereno que pronto regresará y, a continuación, es recomendable que se marche, por muy doloroso que le resulte, ya que la despedida debe ser corta.

Es recomendable que traiga a su hijo cogido de la mano en lugar de en brazos, eso facilitaré la despedida.

Cuando venga a recogerle, procure ser puntual para evitar sentimientos de abandono.

Hable con él/ella acerca de lo que ha hecho ese día en la escuela, felicítele por sus logros y por los juegos y actividades que realiza.

Recuerde hablar sobre la tutora de su hijo/a como una persona cercana.

Tenga en cuenta que en nuestro contacto diario (educadora-familia) intercambiaremos información para ir haciendo en la planificación los procesos de ajuste que la situación de su hijo/a requiera.

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